Since the early 2000s, significant scientific breakthroughs have been made to better understand the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and its implication in shaping the response to cancer immunotherapy. It is now clear that the TME is one of the main hallmarks of cancer. Therefore, one of the major research challenges is identifying key pathways and factors in the TME that can be targeted to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies.
This guide focuses on the implication of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) on cancer immunotherapy. As master regulators of the tumor stroma, CAFs and TAMs define the immediate environment of cancer cells, and this parameter is critical for immunotherapeutic strategies that rely on immune cells having physical and chemical access to tumors.
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